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Giải pháp hữu hiệu giúp thí sinh làm tốt phần nghị luận văn học

Theo thông tư ban hành quy chế thi THPT Quốc gia và xét công nhận tốt nghiệp THPT mà Bộ ban hành từ ngày 25/1/2017, năm 2018, nội dung thi nằm trong chương trình cả lớp 11 và lớp 12. Từ năm 2019 trở đi, nội dung thi THPT nằm trong chương trình cấp THPT bao gồm 3 khối lớp 10, 11 và 12.

Điều này có thể khiến các thí sinh lo lắng vì số môn trong tổ hợp thì tăng lên, khối lượng kiến thức các môn đều tăng dẫn đến áp lực. Đặc biệt với bộn môn Ngữ văn, năm 2018 là năm đầu tiên thi nội dung cả 2 khối nên việc bối rối trong khâu ôn tập là tất yếu. Vì vậy, thí sinh nên chuẩn bị cho mình những phương pháp ôn tập tốt nhất để đạt hiệu quả cao, một trong số đó là phương pháp hệ thống hóa kiến thức.

1. Chú trọng bài học Khái quát văn học để ôn theo nhóm tác phẩm có cùng đặc trưng

Với câu nghị luận văn học, cần có cái nhìn hệ thống bao quát toàn bộ giới hạn nội dung ôn thi. Ngoài các tác phẩm văn học trung đại có đặc trưng riêng, ở phần văn học hiện đại, cái nhìn bao quát nằm ở hai bài: Khái quát văn học Việt Nam từ Cách mạng tháng 8 năm 1945 (lớp 11) và Khái quát văn học Việt Nam từ Cách mạng tháng 8 năm 1945 đến hết thế kỉ XX (lớp 12). Hai bài khái quát này giúp ta hệ thống toàn bộ tác phẩm theo n hóm có cùng chung đặc trưng: tác phẩm văn học hiện thực; tác phẩm văn học lãng mạn; tác phẩm văn học cách mạng; tác phẩm văn học sau 1975. Điều này tạo nên những liên hệ đối sánh để thấy được đặc trưng nổi bật của từng khuynh hướng, từng giai đoạn.

Ví dụ, khi ôn tác phẩm Chiếc thuyền ngoài xa (Nguyễn Minh Châu), cần thấy đây là tác phẩm viết trong thời kì đổi mới sau 1975, cho nên chú trọng đến cảm hứng thế sự đời tư, mang tính nhân văn của tác phẩm.

2. Ôn theo hệ thống thể loại

Cả chương trình ôn thi quy về các thể loại sau: văn chính luận/nghị luận thơ, truyện ngắn, tùy bút, bút kí, kịch. Hệ thống theo thể loại giúp ta ôn tập đúng hướng nội dung từng thể loại, từng tác phẩm và trước mỗi dạng đề bài mà đề thi sẽ cho, vì mỗi thể loại, mỗi tác phẩm có đặc trưng riêng, có cách yêu cầu đề riêng.

Ví dụ, khi ôn các văn bản kịch (Hồn Trương Ba, da hàng thịt – Lưu Quang Vũ) phải chú ý đến các mâu thuẫn, xung đột kịch (vì bản chất của kịch là xung đột, mâu thuẫn), từ các mâu thuẫn ấy phải rút ra ý nghĩa gì? Cũng như thế, đối với truyện ngắn, các dạng đề thường gặp là phân tích nhân vật, tình huống, một khía cạnh nội dung hoặc nghệ thuật của truyện (như nhân vật Tràng, tình huống của Vợ nhặt – Kim Lân). Với thơ thì dạng quen thuộc là phân tích một đoạn thơ tiêu biểu hoặc một khía cạnh bao trùm bài thơ. Ngoài ra cần chú ý dạng bài bàn luận đến một ý kiến bàn về văn học.

3. Ôn tập theo chủ điểm

Ôn tập theo chủ điểm để có cái nhìn trong quan hệ tương quan, so sánh nhiều tác phẩm, giúp dễ nhớ và không mất nhiều thời gian. Có nhiều chủ điểm về đề tài, chủ đề, hình tượng nhân vật, cảm hứng tư tưởng, bút pháp nghệ thuật, phong cách của tác giả,…

Ví dụ: Đề tài về đất nước; về vẻ đẹp hình tượng người phụ nữ; về vẻ đẹp của các con sống; về cảm hứng lãng mạng; về khuynh hướng sử thi; chủ nghĩa anh hùng cách mạng; về giá trị hiện thực, nhân đạo; về phong cách nghệ thuật… Điều này sẽ giúp ích rất nhiều khi gặp dạng đề so sánh.

Như vậy, thí sinh nên tổng kết theo hệ thống vấn đề, nhấn mạng bằng những trong tâm, trọng điểm. Có một số vấn đề, thí sinh có thể tổng kết bằng cách lập bảng biểu. Khi ôn tập theo hệ thống, nếu có thể, nên ôn tập chương trình 11 rồi đến chương trình 12 (theo tiến trình phát triển của VHVN).

Chúc các thí sinh ôn tập tốt!

Phong Vũ.

5 (100%) 1 vote

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